To understand basics of photography we must understand first,
What is Photography ?????????
The term Photography is a combination of two words Photo+Graphy+=Photography.
Photo means a Light and Graphy means drawing.
In simple term Photo graphy means drawing with lights,the cameras we are using are nothing but light reading devices.They read light and form a picture with digital sensor or photography film.
According to wikipedia definition of photography
“Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film”
The whole process of photography is based on some basics components of photography like Aperture,Shutter Speed,White Balance,ISO etc.All these terms jointly called as exposure settings.
If you once master yourself with all exposure settings or all basics of photography,then no one can stop you to capture good photograph.
What is Aperture (F-stops)
Aperture is the size of openings in the lens.Its an adjustable hole in the lens,Its just like human eye,we need to open more eye to see in low light and need to shrink pupils in more light.it can be narrowed or widened to control how much light passes through the lens.
Aperture is measured in or denoted as F-stops.f/2.8,f/5.6,f/16.
Larger aperture means opening is large like f/1.4
Smaller aperture f/16 small opening
Smaller the f-stop no. the larger the aperture.
In the darkest environment we need to open the aperture and in situation of bright sunny day we have to close the aperture ring to desired no.
Above pictures clearly shows when we click at large aperture opening ie f/2.8 more light entered into the camera results it burns the image and make it over exposed.While at f/8 we got optimum exposure and got clear picture in terms of light & colour.Otherside when we clicked at f/22 then it makes picture darker because of smaller aperture opening causes less light enters into camera.
Diffrent lenses have diffrent aperture openings all depands how your lens is manufactured.
02 What is Shutter Speed
SHUTTER SPEED = Bulb, 1/8, 1/20, 1/60, 1/125, 1/160, 1/200, 1/800, 1/2000.
The term shutter speed is also known as exposure time.Shutter speed is the length of time when the film or digital sensor of the camera is exposed to light.The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor of the camera is proportional to shutter speed.If shutter speed is slow then more light will come into image sensor or vice-versa.
In simple term shutter speed is amount of time while the shutter is open while pressing the click button.When we press click button of the camera it opens the shutter and light enters onto the image sensor or film to capture the image.The shutter speed can be 1sec or 1/4000 of the sec.
The shutter mechanism is made up of two parts curtain A and curtain B when we press a shutter button curtain A rises to allow a light to enter into camera and then curtain B rises to meet curtain A and they reset to closed postion together.
Above picture was shot at 1/8 sec. which is slow shutter speed in case of moving subject. 1/8 sec. will not capture the walking movement of the subject resulting it will make the subject shaky.
In a DSLR there is a mirror at 45 degree angle in front of the shutter it reflects light upto the viewfinder.Shutter speed can have dramatic impact on the appearance or quality of image if there is very fast moving obejects.Fast shutter speed freeze the motion in the picture when the objects like fast moving car or horse is runing then fast shutter speed freeze that motion.If we didn’t choose exact shutter speed at fast moving subjects then it will shake the image.
Slow shutter speed has its own advantage over the shooting subjects in night.One must use Tripod while shooting at slow shutter speed.
( This picture shot at 1/30 sec. of exposure time.The light trails shown in picture are the mixture of car and lights of the car passing by at fast speed.)
At this place slow shutter speed has its own dramatic effect in the picture.To get the rest of the image sharp we must stabalize our camera on a tripod.You must seen somewhere the pictures of the crackers that too is the effect of slow shutter speed.
On the other hand if there is fast moving subject like racing car, runing horse etc then we have to opt for fast shutter speed.
03 What is Depth of Field (DOF)
According to wikipedia defination,
“depth of field (DOF), also called focus range or effective focus range,is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear acceptably sharp in an image”
Depth of field is amount that your image is in focus and the amount of focussed area around the subject is called Depth of Filed. Depth Of Field can be described as Shallow and Deeper Depth of field.
Shallow or Small or Narrow Depth of Field:When there is utmost sharpness in the subject and background area totally falls under blur zone or in other words Image with smaller area in focus is called Shallow Depth of Field.
See the picture below to understand shallow depth of field shot at: Aperture F/2.8, Shutter Speed:1/1000
Deeper or Wide or Large Depth of Field: When there is utmost sharpness in the whole image or majority of the area in the picture is in sharpness that is called deeper depth of field.
See the picture below to understand Deeper depth of field shot at Aperture:F/16,Shutter Speed 200.
Depth of field is determined by three factors – Aperture Size, Subject Distance and the Focal length of the lens.
Aperture: Large apertures such as f/1.4, f/2.8 give shallow depth of field,whereas small apertures such as f/16, f/22 give deep depth of field.
Subject Distance : Depth of field is reduced at close focussing distance,and increase as the point of focus or subject moves far away from the camera
Focal Length of the Lens: Shorter the Focal Length the greater the depth of field (DOF) will be at any given aperture and vice-versa.A 35mm wide-angle lens gives far more shallow depth of field at f/8 than a 300m telephoto set to the same aperture.
Kindly have a look at following images to understand Depth of Field.
Shallow Depth of Field ( Above Picture shot at F/2.8)
Deeper Depth of field ( Above Picture shot at F/16)
Shallow Depth of field (Above picture shot at F/2.8)
To increase your Depth of Field (make a Deeper or Large Depth of Field, make more of your image in focus):
- Use a smaller aperture (higher number) f/22 or f/16
- Use a wide angle lens. 10mm or 24mm
- Have your subject far away from your camera.
To have a shallow (or small,narrow) Depth of Field:
- Use a large aperture F/1.4 or f/2.8
- Zoom your lens in. ie. 70mm or 200mm
- Have your subject closer to the lens
03 What is ISO
In Photography a term ISO generally came across with context to senstivity of image sensor or film to light.Lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and finer the grain.Higher ISO settings are generally used in darker situations.
ISO is measured in numbers: 100,200,400,800,1000,1600,2000,6400 etc depanding upon camera manufacturer settings.
Changing the Aperture affects the depth of field while changing the Shutter speed affects freezing or blurring of motion.And changing the ISO numbers affects the picture quality.Higher the ISO,more grainer the picture will look.Lower the ISO lower the grainy image will look.
Above picture showing as we shift to higher ISO number, more grainy the image will be.
Whenever choosing for ISO, one must keep in mind these 3 things:
- Availabilty of Light : While choosing ISO it is necessary to asess the availability of light.Suppose you are shooting Indoor where there is only available tungston light or dim light,e.g you are shooting in a ambient light at birthday party,where lighting concept is dim light in banquet hall then you have to raise your ISO to higher numbers to get the actual feel of the lighting setup inside.On the other hand if you are shooting a landscape in daylight then you have lower down the ISO to ‘say’ 100.That will give you more crisp images.
- Subject Movment: If you are trying to shoot moving subject in low or dim light,then you have to choose high ISO.Very big reason for this is that you can’t slow down your shutter speed.To freeze the motion you will choose higher ISO instead of slow shutter speed.
- Noise:ISO is the term which is directly related to the Noise.Hope you must saw somewhere the images having grains over it.That is just because when we choose higher ISO somewhere in low lighting situations.If you want grainy images then you will have to choose higher ISO or vice-versa.
Now a days full frame cameras like Canon Mark III,1Dx Mark II are producing stunning picture quality even at Higher ISO.